After a year riddled with difficult market conditions, dry wells and regulatory hurdles, the offshore oil and gas sector in the Eastern Mediterranean finally has good reasons to look forward to 2016.
In Egypt, the August 2015 discovery of the so-called “supergiant” Zohr offshore natural gas field could not have come at a better time for Egyptian authorities. While the exact size of the field will only be clear after appraisal drilling, Zohr is hoped to bring Egypt some balance between supply and demand, and extricate the country from its energy crisis. That said, and based on what we currently know, more gas is needed to restart exports. All the more reason to ensure a favorable climate for investors, and encourage exploration and production. Although tempting, it would be unwise for Egypt to halt reforms at this stage. Pricing reforms, plans to phase out subsidies and paying down debt owed to international companies (now standing at $3 billion, down from $6.5 billion) have all contributed to restoring confidence in the sector. There is still more to be done, yet policymakers are already backpedalling on earlier promises. On December 14, Prime Minister Sherif Ismail cancelled the previous government’s decision to fully eliminate subsidies within five years; now we are talking about a much less ambitious 30 percent reduction.
Cyprus too received a boost from Zohr after several disappointments in the first half of 2015. France’s Total relinquished its rights to one piece of the country’s offshore acreage (Block 10) in February 2015, one month prior to Italy’s ENI having drilled a second well that failed to find exploitable hydrocarbons. After Zohr, however, Total looks set to extend its soon-to-expire license in Block 11 for another two years. The company, and others, has also recently been inquiring about areas along the Cypriot-Egyptian maritime border. This renewed interest has prompted some to consider the possibility of organizing a new licensing round. The end of 2015 brought more good news for Cyprus: On November 23, the UK’s BG announced it was acquiring a 35 percent stake in Block 12, where Aphrodite is located. This is a major development, which will see the entry of another big player in the Cypriot gas sector (BG is about to complete a merger with Shell). But its main advantage could well be the stake that BG holds in the Idku export facility in Egypt, improving the prospects of sending Aphrodite gas (from Block 12) to Egypt, although some difficulties could persist. A breakthrough in the negotiations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots, resumed in May 2015, could lead to gas cooperation with Turkey and the laying of a pipeline carrying Cypriot (and possibly Israeli) gas to Turkey and European markets, if conditions are right.
In Israel, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, acting in his capacity as Minister of Economy, approved a gas framework deal on December 17, after invoking national security. A year earlier, the antitrust commissioner David Gilo had revoked a previous agreement that allowed US based Noble Energy and Israeli company Delek to retain ownership of Israel’s biggest offshore field, Leviathan, in return for giving up two small fields, Tanin and Karish. The decision brought the Israeli gas sector to a halt and both delayed and complicated development of Leviathan, the country’s largest offshore gas field. The gas deal outlined by the government was approved by the Knesset in September, but to bypass the Antitrust Authority, the Minister of Economy – at the time Aryeh Deri – would have had to activate clause 52 by invoking national security. Deri refused. However, he resigned from his post on November 1 and was replaced by Benjamin Netanyahu who proceeded with the gas framework deal soon after. A petition was filed at the High Court of Justice against some of the clauses in the deal, and the Court will examine the case in early 2016. Once the process is complete, it is hoped to bring some stability to the regulatory framework. The authorities are building on that to resume offshore exploration, and are hoping to organize bid rounds in 2016 or 2017.
Also, on December 17, a major breakthrough in the negotiations between Israel and Turkey was announced. A normalization of relations between the two countries would pave the way for gas cooperation. The frequently discussed laying of a gas pipeline between the two, however, will have to go through the Cypriot Exclusive Economic Zone, a considerable obstacle for now, unless progress is indeed made between Greek and Turkish Cypriots.
Meanwhile, the vulnerability of offshore installations is still a matter of concern for Israeli authorities. Israel is reportedly planning to install the Iron Dome missile defense system on navy vessels, a temporary measure until German offshore-patrol vehicles are delivered in 2019.
For its part, Lebanon stands exactly where it was a year ago, with only negligible progress, including data interpretations and reinterpretations. The offshore tender, launched in the absence of basic documents to actually close the bid round, is still on hold. Delays in the sector are largely a part of the overall political deadlock, although a possible breakthrough in electing a new president could have positive ramifications elsewhere, potentially even unlocking the oil and gas file. However, the opportunity cost of procrastination was entirely neglected. International interest, currently at its lowest, would have to be revived. In current market conditions, this is easier said than done.
Finally, while the war is still raging in Syria, post-war reconstruction and opportunities, including in the energy sector, are on everyone’s mind. Identifying offshore prospects is a process that can take place before the arms are silenced. The opportunities, on the other hand, depend on the outcome of the war. In December 2013, Russia’s state-controlled Soyuzneftegaz was awarded an exploration and production license in Syria’s block 2. In September 2015, its chairman Yuri Shafranik decided not to proceed with the project because of the risks involved at this point, and announced that the project would be passed to another Russian energy company. The current Syrian regime would like Russian involvement in offshore Syria, but does not perceive this involvement as exclusive.
All told, 2016 looks like a promising year for offshore oil and gas in the Eastern Mediterranean.